Both roasted and unroasted coffee beans can be used for the production of coffee bean oil.
Depending upon the variety and water content, and whether it is roasted or unroasted, the level of pretreatment the coffee beans receive before being pressed differs. In general the beans are gently warmed to the press temperature and then pressed using a mechanical pressing / oil press.
Products are manufactured from the cold-pressed coffee bean oil and from the high quality by-product, the coffee bean press cake.
The oil can also be obtained via an extraction with dimethyl ether or petrol ether. Beforehand the seed are commonly treated with tetrachlorethan, in order to remove the wax contained in them.
Characteristics and shelf life
Coffee bean oil from roasted beans is a green to dark brown color, while that from unroasted beans is rather light brown to yellow.
The oil from the roasted beans possesses the characteristic coffee aroma; that from unroasted beans, however, is nearly odorless.
The melting point of coffee bean oil lies around 8 – 9°C, making it liquid at room temperature. Yet due to the high content of palmitic acid, it re-solidifies at a temperature of 3 to 11°C (solidification temperature: 3 – 11°C).
Coffee bean oil is composed of around 8-11% fatty acid, about 36-43% linoleic acid and around 35-42% palmitic acid. Additionally contained within the oil are around 7-11% stearic acid, around 4-7% arachidic acid and about 4-7% behenic acid. Beyond this wide array of fats, the oil also contains many volatile substances, especially sterols such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol.
Experiments on lab rats with raw coffee bean oil have proven that it has a toxic effect.
The shelf life of this oil is approximately one year.
Coffee bean oil finds its chief use in the realm of cosmetics. Because of its special composition (a high degree of nonsaponification; a density similar to water; and sun-protective characteristics), it is particularly well-suited for the manufacture of sun protection products.
In the chemical industry
On the one hand, coffee bean oil is used in the chemical industry because of its high Vitamin D content (in order to obtain the Vitamin D from the oil), and on the other hand, it is used – due to its high portion of sterols – for obtaining sterols and sterol derivatives.
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In addition to their own knowledge acquired through press trials, the following sources were used to create the article:
- Öle, natürlich kaltgepresst, Basiswissen & Rezepte, Marcus Hartmann, Hädecke, 2008
- Heilende Öle, Pflanzenöle als Nahrungs- und Heilmittel, Neue Erkenntnisse, Günter Albert Ulmer Verlag Tuningen
- Lexikon der pflanzlichen Fette und Öle, Krist, Buchbauer, Klausberger, SpringerWienNewYork, 2008